URBAN POVERTY ALLEVIATION CELL
As regards urban poverty, or a long time the accent was on providing minimum services particularly in the areas classified as slums. It was only in the late eighties an integrated approach was formulated with introduction of UNICEF sponsored Urban Basic Services Program (UBSP) as pilot scheme in selected towns and later with the introduction of Nehru Rozgar Yojana (NRY) in all the urban areas.
Most of the earlier programs were implemented in a routine top-down manner. The failure to achieve a visible reduction in poverty resulted in the search for alternative strategies, the most important achievement of which has been the evolution of the Community Development Society (CDS) System. This strategy focuses on the poor as subjects rather than objects of development and is based on the empowerment of the poor thorough their being organized into self-help groups, not merely for thrift linked credit but for acting as a powerful demand system which also facilitates a converged delivery of services.
The UPA structure came into existence in 1994 consequent on the 74th constitutional amendment and the amendment of the Municipalities Act. And by the year 1999, establishment of Kudumbashree (State Poverty Eradication Mission), a systematic organization of poverty alleviation schemes came in to being.
Profile of Kochi
Total Area : 94.88 Sq.Km
Total Wards : 71
No.of Slums : 280
Total Population : 6,77,381 Lcs
Total BPL Population : 2,13,120
Slum Population : 1,27,872
CDS Structure-Present Status
Total NHG’s : 1302
Total ADS : 80
Number of CDS : 2 (East &West Zones)
Number of Balasabhas : 752
Total Families : 42,000
Total Thrift : 8.5 Crores
Thrift Loan : 13 Crores
Major Poverty Alleviation Components
COCHIN URBAN POVERTY REDUCTION PROJECT
The CUPR Project was aimed at securing better access for the poor of Kochi to improved services and livelihood opportunities by improving their capacity to identify needs and plans for improvement. It was a joint venture of COC and DFID (Department for International Development). The project was implemented for the years 1998 to 2004 and the total outlay was Rs.70.76 Crore.
Project Goal : Sustained improvements in livelihoods in Cochin and Replication of the Model throughout the State
Project Purpose : Better access by the poor of Kochi to improved Livelihood opportunities and services.
Components of the project.
->> Infrastructure- Inslum and citywide
->> Health care
->> Economic development
->> Land tenure
->> Capacity building
->> Community development
->> Monitoring and evaluation
->> Rehabilitated 275 street children and 160 destitute with the support of NGOs
->> Legal Literacy and Legal awareness given to 35000 members with the support of NGOs
->> Support given to 260 destitute and mentally challenged persons through the PRS
->> Possession Certificate issued to 296 families, 300 tenants converted as title holders ->> Rehabilitated 275 street children and 160 destitute with the support of NGOs
->> City wide and inslum improvement programmes.
->> Strengthened CBO structure.
Dehabilitated 260 families by constructing multi dwelling units.
SJSRY - Employment Generation Scheme
VAMBAY – Housing Scheme
NSDP – Slum Improvement Programme
PAM – Poverty Alleviation Scheme for Mattanchery
KDP – Kerala Development Plan
Identification of poor families
The poor families are not identified on the basis of level of income. The Risk indicators to identify urban poor family is as follows.
1. Less than 5 cents of Land / No Land
2. Dilapidated House / No house
3. No Sanitary Latrine
4. No access to safe drinking water within 150 meters
5. Women headed house holds
6. No regular employed person in the family
7. Socially Disadvantaged Groups SC/ST
8. Mentally retarded / Disabled / Chronically ill member in the family
9. Families without colour TV
Schemes under Implementation
SJSRY- Swarna Jayanthi Shahari Rozgar Yojna
It is an employment generation scheme of Govt. of India. The major components are
USEP: (Individual Self Employment scheme)-started 2024 units so far.
DWCUA: (10 women member-Group Enterprise)-257 units started so far (2570 women employed)
Skill Training: Around 10,000members were imparted with vocational training in 34 trades. More than 5200 members were engaged in initiating micro enterprises
The other components are Revolving Fund to DWCUA units, Infrastructure for Marketing, General Training…etc.
VAMBAY (Housing Scheme)
Through this scheme Rs.40,000/- is provided as grant to the homeless who have minimum 1.5 cents of land.
Total Allotment : 22,74,00,000 Cs
No. of Houses provided : 3435
NSDP (National Slum Development Programme)
This progrmme aims to provide infrastructure facilities to the slum dwellers The Major activities include construction of Roads, drains, pavements toilets, up gradation of houses, Electrification, Community Hall Centres, solid waste Management, etc.
Poverty Alleviation for Mattancherry
A special project under SJSRY, first in India for the poverty Eradication of Mattancherry area started in 2004 with a central share of Rs. 3.5 Crore and state Share of 1.17 Crore. The major achievements of the scheme include initiation of
DWCUA - 82 units,
USEP - 775 units,
Skill training - 1767 members
UWEP - Renovation of 2 Govt. Hospitals.
Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal mission (JNNURM)
A comprehensive package for poverty alleviation introduced by Government of India called JNNURM in which Basic Services to the Urban Poor (BSUP) is a major component. Kochi Corporation has submitted BSUP – CDP&DPR with a vision of Making Kochi as a slum free city.